Experiment Number 5
Categories of Alcohols: Lucas Evaluation
Q1. REACTION OF PRIMARY, SUPPLEMENTARY AND TERTIARY ALCOHOLS WITH LUCAS REAGENT
IMMEDITE REACTION WITH LUCAS' REAGENT
OBSERVATIONS FOLLOWING 5 MINUTES BY 27 °C TO 28 °C
No effect occurred
Extra butyl alcohol
Tertiary butyl liquor
Q2. RESULT OF SECONDARY AND TERTIARY ALCOHOLS WITH CENTERED HYDROCHLORIC ACID
Secondary butyl alcohol
Tertiary butyl alcoholic beverages
Q3. Classify the alcohols used in this experiment as primary, second or tertiary. Q4. Employ your response to question one particular and the brings about Table 2 to explain just how mixing a great alcohol of unknown framework with Lucas. Reagent may help one to determine whether it is major, secondary or perhaps tertiary. Q5. Write down a great equation to get the reaction of tertiary butyl alcohol with concentrated hydrochloric acid. Q6. Explain why the solution became milky white in appearance following adding 10 M HCl(aq) to the tertiary butyl alcoholic beverages. Q7. Students is given two alcohols which to perform Lucas Test. These are cyclohexanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol. The bottles made up of each alcohol are classed, but the propettes used are not. The student by accident muddles the propettes. When ever drops of each and every alcohol happen to be mixed with Lucas. Reagent and kept for 27 °C, both alternatives become turbid. How can the student find out which usually alcohol has been placed in which will propette?
Appearance of any cloudy second layer or emulsion
3o alcohols: instant to 2 - 3 minutes
2o alcohols: five -10 minutes
1o alcohols: no response
A. Lucas test
Reactants Reagents Period taken Observations
Lucas reagent (concentrated hydrochloric acidity, HCl and Zinc chloride, ZnCl) Quickly Solution transforms cloudy with 2 obvious layers shaped 2-butanol several minutes Answer turns over cast with a couple of layers produced n-butanol > 15 minutes Not any reaction noticed after 15 minutes
Alcohol Back button > 15 minutes No response observed after 15 minutes
B. Oxidation evaluation
Reactants Reactants Observations
Sodium dichromate, Na2Cr2O7 Simply no observation observed, yellow coloring remains 2-butanol Solution turns from discolored to greenish colour after heating n-butanol Solution becomes from yellow to soft greenish coloring after heating Alcohol Times Solution turns from discolored to soft greenish colour after heating C. Esterification test
Reactants reagents Observations
Centered sulphuric acid solution (H2SO4) + glacial acetic acid A rubbery smell is usually detected from the product produced Discussion:
A. Lucas evaluation
The Lucas reagent can be an aqueous solution which will consists of solid acid (hydrochloric acid, HCl) and zinc chloride. Lucas reagent is often used to identify the class of alcohols. The reactants accustomed to react with Lucas reagent must be soluble in drinking water for the reaction to take place. A compound with more than six carbons is to large to be dissolved in the reagent and therefore will not react generally. Therefore only water-soluble alcohols of low molecular pounds will provide positive results in this evaluation. Hence only four several low molecular weight alcohols are used, which are the 2-methyl-2-propanol, 2-butanol, n-butanol and an unknown alcoholic beverages X. The reaction that occurs inside the Lucas test is a nucleophilic substitution. The response is a replacement in which the chlorine replaces the hydroxyl group. Only alcohols that can generate stable carbocation intermediates is going to undergo the response. The acid catalyst activates the hydroxyl group (OH group) of the alcoholic beverages by protonating the air atom. The C-OH relationship breaks to build the carbocation, which in turn responds with the chloride ion (nucleophile) to generate a great alkyl halide product. Besides, the hydroxyl ions happen to be protonized with hydrogen ions to form water. Thus the response involves replacement of hydroxyl group (-OH) in the alcohol by chloride ions from the Lucas reagent to form alkyl...
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